# RND

The **RND** function returns a random number with a value between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive).

## Contents

## Syntax

- result! = RND [(
*n*)]

- result! = RND [(

## Parameters

*n*is a SINGLE numeric value that defines the behavior of the RND function but is**NOT normally required**:

- n parameter omitted: Returns next random number in the sequence.
- n = 0: Return the last value returned.
- n < 0: Always returns the same value for any given n
- n > 0: the sequence of numbers generated will not change unless RANDOMIZE is initiated.

## Description

- The random numbers generated range from 0 minimum to .9999999 maximum SINGLE values that never equal 1.
- To get values in a range larger than 1, multiply RND with a number to get returns up to but not including that numerical value.
- To get values starting at a certain number, add that number to the RND result as RND minimums can be 0.
- If you need an integer range of numbers, like a dice roll, round it down to an INT. Add 1 to the maximum number with INT.
- The random sequence is 2 ^ 24 or 16,777,216 entries long, which can allow repeated patterns in some procedures.
- Formulas for the Integer or Closest Integer of ANY number range from
*min%*(lowest value) to*max%*(greatest value):

- Use RANDOMIZE TIMER for different random number results each time a program is run.
- RUN should reset the RANDOMIZE sequence to the starting RND function value.(Not yet in QB64)

*Example 1:* Generating a random integer value between 1 and 6 (inclusive) using INT.

dice% = INT(RND * 6) + 1 * * 'add one as INT value never reaches 6

*Example 2:* Using uniform random numbers to create random numbers with a gaussian distribution (Marsaglia's polar method).

* *
DO
u! = RND * 2 - 1
v! = RND * 2 - 1
s! = u! * u! + v! * v!
LOOP WHILE s! >= 1 OR s! = 0
s! = SQR(-2 * LOG(s!) / s!) * 0.5
u! = u! * s!
v! = v! * s! * *

*Explanation:*Values*u!*and*v!*are now two independent random numbers with gaussian distribution, centered at 0.

*Example 3:* Random flashes from an explosion

* *
SCREEN _NEWIMAGE(640, 480, 32)
RANDOMIZE TIMER
BC = 120 ' BALL COUNT
DIM ballx(1 TO BC)
DIM bally(1 TO BC)
DIM velx(1 TO BC)
DIM vely(1 TO BC)
DIM bsize(1 TO BC)
Y = INT(RND * (400 - 100 + 1)) + 100
X0 = 325
Y0 = 300
Tmax = 150
DO
FOR p = 1 TO BC
T = INT(RND * (Tmax - 50 + 1)) + 50
X = INT(RND * (1000 + 500 + 1)) - 500
velx(p) = (X - X0) / T ' calculate velocity based on flight time
vely(p) = -1 * (Y - .05 * (T ^ 2 + 20 * Y0)) / (T) ' verticle velocity
NEXT p
FOR w = 1 TO BC
bsize(w) = INT(RND * (10 - 0 + 1)) + 0 'size
NEXT w
FOR J = 1 TO Tmax
_LIMIT 60
CLS
'FOR i = 0 TO 255 STEP .5
'CIRCLE (X0, Y0), i, _RGB(255 - i, 0, 0), 0, 3.147
' NEXT i
R = INT(RND * (25 - 20 + 1)) + 20 'random glimmer
FOR z = 1 TO BC
ballx(z) = X0 + velx(z) * J
bally(z) = Y0 - vely(z) * J + .5 * .1 * J ^ 2
NEXT z
FOR d = 1 TO BC
RCOL = INT(RND * (255 - 0 + 1)) 'color
FOR i = 0 TO bsize(d) + 1 STEP .4 'draw balls
CIRCLE (ballx(d), bally(d)), i, _RGBA(255, RCOL - (R * i), RCOL - R * i, 255)
NEXT i
NEXT d
_DISPLAY
NEXT J
LOOP UNTIL INKEY$ <> "" * *

## See also

*Navigation:*