Scientific notation
Scientific notation or exponential notation is used to express very large or small numerical values by SINGLE or DOUBLE accuracy.
Usage: -9.7587E+04 or 4.6545D-9
- E denotes SINGLE precision accuracy and D denotes DOUBLE precision accuracy in Qbasic. D and E are considered numbers!
- To translate the notation, multiply the number preceding the letter by the value of 10 raised to the power following the letter.
- PRINT USING can display the normal numerical values. You will have to use less digits than the real value.
- Note: Naturally numerically calculating the value in Qbasic would return the same value!
- INPUT WILL accept the letter E with SINGLE or DOUBLE variables while D can only be used with DOUBLE variables.
Sample 1: +2.184D+3 means to multiply 2.184 by 1,000 (1,000 is 10 raised to the third power, or 10 ^ 3 ).
- To multiply by 10 raised to a positive power, just move the decimal point to the right by 3.
- The result is 2184 in DOUBLE accuracy.
Sample 2: -5.412D-2 is negative 5.412 times .01 (10 raised to the -2 power or 10 ^ -2 ).
- To multiply a number by 10 raised to a negative power, just move the decimal point to the left by 2.
- The result is -.05412 in DOUBLE accuracy.
Sample 3: 3.07E+12 is a positive 3.07 times 1,000,000,000,000 (10 raised to the 12 power or 10 ^ 12).
- To multiply a number by 10 raised to a positive power, just move the decimal point to the right by 12.
- The result is 3,070,000,000,000 in SINGLE accuracy.
Example: A string function that displays extremely small or large exponential decimal values.
num# = -2.34D-15 PRINT num# PRINT StrNum$(num#) END FUNCTION StrNum$ (n#) value$ = UCASE$(LTRIM$(STR$(n#))) Xpos% = INSTR(value$, "D") + INSTR(value$, "E") 'only D or E can be present IF Xpos% THEN expo% = VAL(MID$(value$, Xpos% + 1)) IF VAL(value$) < 0 THEN sign$ = "-": valu$ = MID$(value$, 2, Xpos% - 2) ELSE valu$ = MID$(value$, 1, Xpos% - 1) END IF dot% = INSTR(valu$, "."): L% = LEN(valu$) IF expo% > 0 THEN add$ = STRING$(expo% - (L% - dot%), "0") IF expo% < 0 THEN min$ = STRING$(ABS(expo%) - (dot% - 1), "0"): DP$ = "." FOR n = 1 TO L% IF MID$(valu$, n, 1) <> "." THEN num$ = num$ + MID$(valu$, n, 1) NEXT ELSE StrNum$ = value$: EXIT FUNCTION END IF StrNum$ = sign$ + DP$ + min$ + num$ + add$ END FUNCTION
-2.34D-15 -.00000000000000234
See also: