PRINT USING

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The PRINT USING statement is used to PRINT formatted data to the Screen or a file using a STRING template.


Syntax

PRINT [text${;|,}] USING template$; variable[; ...][{;|,}]


Parameters

  • Literal or variable STRING text$ can be placed between PRINT and USING or it can be included in the template.
  • A semicolon or comma may follow the text to stop or tab the print cursor before the template PRINT.
  • The literal or variable STRING template should use the template symbols to display each variable type in the list following it.
  • The list of data variables used in the template are separated by semicolons after the template string value.
  • In QB64 ONE semicolon or comma may follow the variable list to stop the print cursor for pending prints. QB only allowed a semicolon.


Usage:

  • The variables should be listed in the order that they are used in the template from left to right.
  • If the template string is omitted or symbols don't match the variable(s) an "Illegal Function Call" ERROR will occur!
  • No more than 25 # digit places are allowed in a template number or an error will occur.
  • Can convert numerical exponential or scientific notation values to normal decimal point values using less digits.
  • NOTE: If the numerical value exceeds the template's digit range a % symbol will appear in the leftmost digit area.
  • WARNING: The numbers displayed are rounded so the actual values are never changed and are actually more accurate.


Template is a literal or variable string using the following formatting characters:


  & Prints an entire string value. STRING length should be limited as template width will vary.
  \  \ Denotes the start and end point of a fixed string area with spaces between(LEN = spaces + 2).
  ! Prints only the leading character of a string value. Exclamation points require underscore prefix.
  # Denotes a numerical digit. An appropriate number of digits should be used for values received.
^^^^ After # digits prints numerical value in exponential E+xx format. Use ^^^^^ for E+xxx values.*
  . Period sets a number's decimal point position. Digits following determine rounded value accuracy.
  ,. Comma to left of decimal point, prints a comma every 3 used # digit places left of the decimal point.
  + Plus sign denotes the position of the number's sign. + or - will be displayed.
  - Minus sign (dash) placed after the number, displays only a negative value's sign.
  $$ Prints a dollar sign immediately before the highest non-zero # digit position of the numerical value.
  ** Prints an asterisk in any leading empty spaces of a numerical value. Adds 2 extra digit positions.
 **$ Combines ** and $$. Negative values will display minus sign to left of $.
  _ Underscore preceding a format symbol prints those symbols as literal string characters.

Note: Any string character not listed above will be printed as a literal text character.

* Any # decimal point position may be specified. The exponent is adjusted with significant digits left-justified.


Example 1: Printing formatted data using a predefined string template variable.

first$ = "Bobby": last$ = "Smith" boxes% = 1510: sales! = 4530 tmp$ = "Salesperson: & & #####,. $$#####,.##" PRINT USING tmp$; first$; last$; boxes%; sales!

Salesperson: Bobby Smith 1,510 $4,530.00

Explanation: The Salesperson: text precedes the formatted data. The name lengths will change the length of the string template accordingly so columns will not all line up. If \ \ was used, the columns would stay the same, but parts of some names might be lost. If the box or sales values exceed 3 digits, a comma is used in the value every 3 digits.


Example 2: How to display formatting symbols as normal text using underscores in a PRINT USING template.

errcode = 35 PRINT USING "Error ## occurred!!"; errcode 'now there are the !! at the end of the printed string PRINT USING "Error ## occurred_!_!"; errcode END

Error 35 occurred Error 35 occurred!!

Explanation: The first template will not print the exclamation points or error when the requested text parameters are omitted.


Example 3: Exponential notation is designated after the leading digits are formatted. Digit places determine rounded value displayed.

PRINT USING "##.##^^^^"; 234.56 PRINT USING ".####^^^^-"; -777777 PRINT USING "+.##^^^^"; 123 PRINT USING "+.##^^^^^"; 123

2.35E+02 .7778E+06- +.12E+03 +.12E+003

Explanation: Note how 5 carets in the bottom format expands the number of exponent digits to accommodate larger exponent values.


Example 4: USING does not necessarily have to immediately follow PRINT, but it must follow it in the code line.

money = 12345.45 tmp$ = "$$#######,.##" PRINT "I have this much money!"; USING tmp$; money

Note: This can also be used to print the USING formatting characters outside of the template.


See also:



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